Literary Review

How we pay for everyday items and our bills has changed so much over the last 10 to 15 years.  With the advancements in banking and online accessibility we have evolved how we purchase items.  Technology has given us the ability to go online and pay our bills in a fraction of the time and shop from the convenience of our homes.  Many benefit from the time saved on the consumer side and the company’s side, there are those that see all of this stored data as a gold mine of personal information that they can use for their own gain.  Is there something that the customers should do differently to keep their information private, is it the job of the company’s to keep hackers our or should the government step in and put more controls in place.  This paper is going to look at the changes that have taken place sense we first started to pay for things online and how identity theft and fraud has risen when security is no up to date.

Paying our bills has never been easier, in the past we would write a check put it in an envelope and mail it, when the company received it they would find our account and input the payment.  So much time was used to pay bills and lots of paper wasted.  Moving our bills online has given us the ability to see our accounts 24 hours a day, pay our bills no matter where we are and be notified if anything is out of the ordinary.  You can avoid late fees and interest charges by knowing when your account is due and can set up reminders.  By avoiding fees and interest you are saving money every month.  With so much convince Yu, Hsi and Kuo (2014) bring up that “The main concern with electronic payments is the level of security in each step of the transaction, because money and merchandise are transferred while there is no direct contact between the two sides involved in the transaction.  If there is even the slightest possibility that the payment system may not be secure, trust and confidence in this system will begin to erode, destroying the infrastructure needed for electronic commerce.”  All of this ease and convenience has risks associated with it.  Each person must decide what level of risk they are willing to accept for themselves and what is too risky.  Past experiences can affect how a person decides if they will bank and shop online.  In an interview by Krissah Williams (2005) of a newlywed couple Vanessa and Cyril who have very different styles of banking while “Vanessa, 38, says she is savvy enough to recognize fake e-mails from scammers trying to trick her into divulging personal and financial information. Cyril, 41, had his identity stolen years ago and thinks putting his account information on a computer is a risky move.”

With the rise of the credit card being used as the primary form of payment for purchases large and small, credit card fraud is on the rise.  Sethi and Gera (2014) write that there are two main types of credit card fraud and 3 main types of fraudsters.  Offline credit card fraud is when there is a credit card present to make a transaction or online fraud if there is no card present but the credit card information is used to make an online transaction.  How fraudsters can get your information could be from buying it because they have little skill in hacking but wish to obtain goods online.  There are those that physically steal credit cards and use them both on and off line.  The third are called “Black Hat Hackers” which are usually very computer and security savvy and go out to sites that hold customer data to steal it, they then will sell it to the first group mentioned.  Where there is fraud there are also detection methods.  Tuthill (2002) lists the steps for software to be used to detect and analyzes fraud “Typically, a credit card is swiped at the cash register and information is sent over the credit card network via telephone lines. In one-quarter of a second, fraud detection software analyzes it, compares it, evaluates it in a thousand different ways and makes a prediction on whether a fraudulent act is occurring at that moment. The transaction is then approved or rejected and the retailer determines what happens next.”  This is just one of several ways that companies detect fraud.  They have to keep changing and evolving to keep up with the hackers and continue to update their software to avoid breaches.

Companies want to maintain customers and ensure they are keeping their risk as minimal as possible Fung, Molico and Stubber (2014) give an example “if one of the major non-bank payments providers fails, it could cause serious disruption to the economy and undermine confidence in payments systems.” Also “Central banks need to know more about how non-bank retail payments systems work and the risks raised by those systems.”  Non-banks such as PayPal and Bitcoin have led to their own issues and risks.  Many companies do not accept non-bank methods of payments but many companies do.  Accepting payments from the outside venders depends on the volume of sales that can be generated through the payment system.  System upgrades can help to keep up with customer wants and needs but can be costly and can open themselves up to more threats if not implemented properly.  Tuthill (2002) says that “Merchants and bankers who do business online agree that losing money in a cyber-transaction is an uncomfortable possibility.  Any traditional, cashless financial transaction involves risk, but the wide open nature of the internet raises the stakes.”  With fraud detection, security and strong risk management techniques, risks can be reduced for companies and consumers.

With identity theft on the rise with internet use there are large questions being asked as to who is responsible for our online security.  Piquero A., Cohen and Piquero N. (2011) conducted an extensive study to see who should be responsible and how much individuals would be willing to pay to have someone else take care of it.  They found that 66% of the public is willing to pay an additional tax to the government for identity theft prevention if theft is reduced by 75%.  Only 40% were willing to pay for the tax if it was only a 25% reduction in theft occurred.  They found that the willingness to pay the tax was higher among individuals who have many credit cards and are already actively taking steps to prevent identity theft.  “Converted into a “per crime” cost and combined with the portion of identity theft costs that are borne directly by business, we estimate the average cost per identity theft to range from approximately $2,800 to $5,100.”  Just as Cyril did not want to do any business online due to bad past experiences, those that have been negatively affected are more willing to pay for protection in the future and are more willing to take steps to avoid having it happen again.

Online bill payments, retail purchases, and other online activity have produced a new kind of criminal and it is up to each person to decide what level of involvement they want to take to protect themselves.  Each person has their own level of needs to be met and some can use less hands on methods while other will be checking their credit reports regularly to keep an eye out for fraud.


Fung, B., Molico, M., & Stuber, G. (2014). Electronic money and payments: Recent developments and issues. Retrieved from

Piquero, N., Cohen, M. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2011). How Much is the Public Willing to Pay to be Protected from Identity Theft?. JQ: Justice Quarterly, 28(3), 437-459. doi:10.1080/07418825.2010.511245

Sethi, N., & Gera, A. (2014). A Revived Survey of Various Credit Card Fraud Detection Techniques.

Tuthill, M. (2002). Paying Online–Losing Money may not be the Biggest Threat. AFP Exchange, 22(6), 118.

Williams, K. (2005). Online banking: Are you ready? Black Enterprise, 35(12), 93-100.

Yu, H. C., Hsi, K. H., & Kuo, P. J. (2002). Electronic payment systems: an analysis and comparison of types. Technology in Society, 24(3), 331-347.


Reading Response #7

In an article by Forbes the concepts of digital critics gives an outlook at the abundance of data about everyone and everything.  With so much information that we are putting out there is it too much and how much it is affecting our lives.  By studying how each of the pros and cons can give us more insights into our lives but can also lead us down wrong paths if we have broken or flawed data imputed.

Looking at “Why It’s Too Easy to Dismiss Technology Critics: Or, The Fallacies Leading a Reviewer to Call Nicholas Carr Paranoid” it feels like a lot of the same information that we heve been reading over and over again for the whole semester.  This article brings a lot of the same points up that have been gone over and does not bring new opinions to the argument.  Is a great piece if someone was looking for a basic pros and cons of how the internet is affecting our thinking patterns or privacy wants and needs.  Of course the medical field benefits from so much information and all other areas are hurting.  The cost associated with new doctoring styles could be a burden for most but with more tests it can lead to more selective tests being done and lead to less testing in the long run.

Reading “We Want Privacy, but Can’t Stop Sharing” by Kate Murphyoct did not make me cringe at the idea of no doors because we had no doors in boot camp but I can understand how some would be overwhelmed.  Just like when the topic of privacy comes up there are those that don’t feel like it is a big deal to have the doors and there are those that need locks and bolts to keep their privacy.  Giving the underage social media users the ability to erase social media is a step in the right direction because the young just can’t understand the far reaching consequences that their posts can have.

We can’t have our cake and eat it to.  We need to decide individually what we want the world to know and not know.  We have to be in control of our online life.  There are other ways of being online then posting every pic you take or where you are at all times and expect not to be tracked.  If we want privacy then we need to stop updating the internet.

Annotated Bibliography

  1. Fung, B., Molico, M., & Stuber, G. (2014). Electronic money and payments: Recent developments and issues. Retrieved from

They are noting that there is a huge change taking place in the retail and banking style and banks need to anticipate these changes and be able to adapt to how the customers will want to bank and pay for items.  This paper defines the term e-money, summarizes recent developments in e-money and electronic payments and their implications for cash demand.  Discusses the implications of digital alternatives to cash for monetary policy and financial stability intervention, and describes other public policy issues.  Fung, Molico and Stuber also discusses the potential roles of the central bank with regard to e-money.

  1. McCormick, A. (2006). Making online bill pay work for billers. Government Finance Review, 22(5), 38-42.

This has some studies from several states and how the users and companies are handling online bill pay and many of the different aspects and problems that are coming up.  Showing how quick and easy it has become to upgrade to new bill pay options and some of the obstacles that this change also presents to the companies.  By upgrading the systems they are reducing countless office hours that use to be used manually entering check information.  It explains the online bill pay process and how it is different from an online electronic payment process.  This gets into the business side of the transaction and how each payment system affects them.

  1. Piquero, N., Cohen, M. A., & Piquero, A. R. (2011). How Much is the Public Willing to Pay to be Protected from Identity Theft?. JQ: Justice Quarterly, 28(3), 437-459. doi:10.1080/07418825.2010.511245

Identity theft is on the rise and many households across the country are feeling the effects and losses.  The government has passed laws and legislation to increase punishments for criminals to help protect the financial and business organizations.  This paper looks at the public’s views of the governments programs to protect identities and reduce theft.  It addresses who would be interested and who would only see it as another tax.  Brings to mind who should be in charge of our identity protection; something we should take care of ourselves or something we should let the government regulate.

  1. Snider, M., & Chisholm, P. (2000). Bills, bills, e-bills. Maclean’s, 113(30), 32.

Showing how an internet based payments is giving customers an easier way to pay bills and how it is saving companies money at the same time.  Gives a look into when the initial leap was beginning to move bills online and the excitement that some people had to be able to get organized and be more mobile.  Snider brings up the unknown security issues that could face the new technology because there is so much personal information stored in one place makes it a bigger target for hackers.  It also followed how a company started up with making online bill pay sites for other companies and all of the business opportunities that have arisen in this new market that didn’t exist before.

  1. Stone, B., Tanaka, J., & Lach, J. (1998). Point, click and pay. Newsweek, 132(7), 66.

This one is a little older but shows where we were about 10 years ago and the mindset we had toward online bill pay.  By seeing where we started and the early concerns and wants of consumers to compare to the current standards and options that are available can be beneficial.  Also I am looking at how quickly we have evolved to an online lifestyle in less than 15 years.  When companies know the wants and needs of their customers they can better plan and make changes to the overall business to keep the customers happy and loyal.  By creating one website for customers to log into all of their bills and have the ability to pay all of their bills from reduces the amount of username and passwords that must be remembered.  Having everything on one site though raises security risks leaving it up to the users to gauge what level of risk is acceptable for what level of service they require.

  1. Tuthill, M. (2002). Paying Online–Losing Money may not be the Biggest Threat. AFP Exchange, 22(6), 118.

After establishing several online bill payment options for consumers, companies are noticing that any loss of money is nowhere near as detrimental to a company as a security breach.  When a security breach occurs with consumer data in the company’s database it can cause lost consumer confidence.  Consumer confidence is a defining factor for a company to stay in business.  Only the very strong companies can sustain after a large data breach.  Controls are created to avoid any breaches.  Procedures are tested to ensure proper response in the case of a breach or attempted hack.  Trying to stay ahead of the criminals is the key.  This has also opened me up to many other studies and articles with more information.

  1. Weisser, C. (2004). Take charge. Money, 33(10), 82-88.

Is more of a budgeting plan but shows at the start some of the benefits of online banking from a personal organizational point of view.  How late fees can be avoided by making bill pay easier and more convenient.  Weisser shows how being in control of you income and budget can actually make you wealthier and more stable.  By pointing out some tips and tricks to adapting to this online world we live in and how beneficial and profitable it can be to have your bills straight and ways to reduce bills and stress.  How just knowing how much you actually spend on basic and extra things every month then decide where and if you need to cut from.

  1. Williams, K. (2005). Online banking: Are you ready? Black Enterprise, 35(12), 93-100.

This article has a great break down between the “old” and the “new” ways of banking, weather it is online or otherwise it has some great points for both.  Shows a breakdown of how online banking can be utilized by anyone.  Shows some reasons why some do not engage in online banking.  Touches on the subject of what efforts banks are putting forth to encourage customers to bank online.  The article focuses mostly on African Americans in this paper and some hurtles that they face in particular.  Weather it is because they do not know what is out there to use or they have not gotten around to signing up to bank online this paper addresses the issues of getting online for those that are not as computer savvy.

Reading Response #6

The articles “Are We Getting Privacy the Wrong Way Round” by Kieron O’Hara and “What is Evil to Google” by Ian Bogost create an interesting link between the ideas of personal privacy and how to define what is good or evil to individuals and groups.  Some things that come to mind when reading O’Hara’s article is even if we wanted to become more anomalous online is it even possible now? Also, don’t we already get profiled by banks and landlords when we apply for loans and even our cell phones?  The idea that we lose our individuality seams fairly accurate but there were already things established to judge us sense the beginning of time.  It used to be based on much more visual things such as color and lifestyle and income but now it’s more centered on what we say and think and buy online.  It just seems that we always need to establish stereotypes in order to deal with and understand other people.  Who knows one day we may base our presidents and officials on their blood type or the genes found in DNA.  This is just the current thing to be worried about and too obsessed with.  This generation will make it an ongoing norm or decide that it is more detrimental to us as a whole to post every stray thought and idea. Maybe create limits to or remove the social networking aspects.  Limit it by having a way to screen you posts or have a delay in place so you can preview them later (such as if you are drinking at a party and really should not be on your phone and do something you could regret) so you don’t have to worry about it later on in life.  While reading Bogost’s article I think that he is really trying to drive home the point that Google does not define evil and how evil is a very subjective term.  While we may not see it today, tomorrow that last bean burrito was an evil idea to your stomach.  Leaving their meaning open to interpretation by all, it gives Google the ability to work in a broad range of ideas and innovations that stricter rules might stifle.  On the other hand having no other rules can make for difficulties if one employee things something is evil and no one else sees it that way then there could be a bigger problem that must be addressed.  Our world is being shaped by these decisions that are made in large corporation and companies; if the majority can stand behind them then they will continue to prosper and continue to make decisions for us.  We just have to decide if that is something we can live with or something that we want to see changed.

Reading Response #5

Digital Scholarship Blog Post
What is his thesis?
“The articles and books that scholars produce today bear little mark of the digital age in which they are created. Researchers routinely use electronic tools in their professional lives but not to transform the substance or form of their scholarship.” He is really trying to bring up the fact that even though the web is a quick and convenient way for scholars to publish their work and have it read, reviewed, and discussed by others, there is not much of hurry for anyone to make the move to online publications instead of the original paper publication. Bringing the ideas and information to the internet it allows many more individuals to have access to that knowledge.
What is his definition of Digital Scholarship?
“discipline-based scholarship produced with digital tools and presented in digital form” is his definition of Digital Scholarship. Scholarly work posted or published in a digital format without changing the intent or meaning. It gives more room to work without the old confines that surrounded paper research. “Digital publication—such as the online version of this article—permits authors to link to sources, authorities, and related work in helpful and convenient ways without changing a work’s format on paper.”
What is the purpose of all scholarship, whatever its form? (p. 32, 33)
“advancing a disciplined and meaningful conversation… make contributions and fill gaps, sustaining the conversation in ways large and small” to look at many different angles of a question and be able to talk about it in a formal way so that many can benefit from the different points of view. All scholarship is published to have credible information to use in many aspects of research and advancement to make new connections and discoveries.
What are the challenges to Digital Scholarship? (p.28)
“The diminished sense of possibility weakens the incentive for scholars to take risks, and the unwillingness to take risks limits the impact and excitement generated by boldly innovative projects.” Getting anyone to participate in the new and exciting can be hard for anyone that has the mentality of “if it’s not broken, don’t fix it”. If the tried and true method is still effective and usable then there is no reason to jump ship. It may take putting the digital idea into the new and upcoming generation to really get digital scholarship to flourish. It will take longer to make the norm digital but sense it is a slow build then it will be more solid in the long run I think because more time is put into the process.
What has the scholarly communication process looked like for a long time now?
“Print scholarship follows a deliberate path toward publication, with research, evaluation, and revision being completed before the scholarship appears before the public. Then, another slow process of dissemination follows; it takes years for a book to be widely read, reviewed, comprehended, absorbed, and debated or built upon.” Having such a long process also gives a topic a through look through. More thought is put into the reviews and debates with smaller audiences. Online though there is a larger audience with less prior knowledge of the subject but more fresh ideas can be added to the whole.
How does digital scholarship grow?
“By radically extending the audience for a work of scholarship, by reaching students of many ages and backgrounds, by building the identity of the host institution, by attracting and keeping excellent faculty and students, by creating bonds between faculty and the library, and by advancing knowledge across many otherwise disparate disciplines, innovative digital scholarship makes sense.” Adding the next generation into the mix brings the technology aspect up more. We want to be able to use all of our resources in any way that we can. Before the technology can be accepted there will have to be some sort of push or catalysts to put the scholars on that track. While the current scholars are using the old ways because that is what they are used to the new and upcoming generations will most likely move more and more towards the digital options because that is what they are used to and grow up with.

Ayers, E. L. (2013, August 5). Does digital scholarship have a future?Retrieved from

Big Data Book Review

Elizabeth Outland


Knowledge Management



Big Data Book Review


“Big Data” by Viktor Mayer-Schönberg and Kenneth Cukier delve into the ideas and nuances that have come out of our constant search for answers of things that are happening around us.  Using new technology in so many ways that they were never intended to be used for has advanced our understanding of patterns that are going on around us faster than they have ever been understood before.  The book brings up several different ideas and concepts associated with collecting large amounts of data and looking at all of it instead of just sample groups that could never give a full picture before.  This is only possible now because of the great strides we have made in information collection and data storage.

While the book makes several claims about big data the first chapter feels very repetitive.  Repetitive in a way that I feel I was reading the same idea several times over and over but in different sentences and worded differently throughout the whole chapter.  It does not bring very many concepts in but just keeps hitting on how data brings what not why into our end product after reviewing large amounts of data.  It makes the same point so many times I was truly glad to finish the chapter in hopes of getting new data.

Throughout the book this repetitiveness becomes a common theme that I noticed.  A new point would be made using a new business or use of big data and then would go back and bring every single mention of something similar that they have already stated in previous chapters.  Usually this is good for bringing points around and coming full circle with an idea but they do it to a point of making it a very laborious read.  Laborious to read in a sense that they are covering information but not laborious in a way that it is hard to understand or follow the ideas being presented.  I feel like much of the book can be streamlined and still keep all of the meaning and understandability intact.  Every new example that “Big Data” brought in is presented well and the book describes and ties everything together.  It can get very wordy when it does this though.

The whole book brings lots of the advances we have made in our online lifestyles and what that means for advertising companies, how we track maintenance for vehicles, and the ability to learn about each other things that were never know before.  We have put our personal lives out in the open for anyone to see and analyze and that is something that we will never be able to get back.  We understand more but we are sacrificing our privacy in the process.  While doctors are making great advances by being able to collect large amounts of patient data has its advantages that everyone will benefit from, companies knowing what we listen to, read, or watch is beneficial to everyone as a whole.


Elizabeth Outland


Knowledge Management


Online Banking Security

Our method of paying bills has evolved over the years with the introduction of the internet.  With online bill pay, paper statements and letters are declining.  Many companies make the bill pay transactions electronically and are authorized to withdraw the money from a bank account.  Even though it is easier, many users are concerned what companies are doing with their personal information.  With so much personal data in one place, hackers are always trying to break into those databases and get ahold of all of our information.  Have we put ourselves in a less secure lifestyle by going online just to pay bills faster?

  1. Security introduction
  2. How we pay
    1. Online through bank
    2. Online through company website
    3. By mail
  3. What are some of the risks
    1. Public computers
    2. Hackers
  4. How is our online payments being monitored
    1. How well is the site and database encrypted
    2. Vulnerabilities
  5. Known risks with mailing in payments
    1. Lost mail
    2. Weather delays
    3. Employee time used to input data